Recent Advances in Cervical Cancer Screening

Judith J Thangaiah, Frank Chen

Abstract


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 11,967 new cases of HPV-associated cervical cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year. More black and Hispanic women get cervical cancer than women of other races or ethnicities, possibly because of decreased access to Pap testing or follow-up treatment.

Based on solid evidence, cervical cancer screening and protection against HPV infection by vaccination against HPV types 16/18, use of barrier contraceptives, and sexual abstinence decreases cervical cancer incidence. Also avoidance of active and passive cigarette smoking, high parity, and long term use of contraceptives decreases the risk of cervical cancer.

In this article, we aim to review the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer. Discussion of the latest Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines chart given by CDC that compares recommendations from the American Cancer Society, Preventive Services Task Force, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is done.

With the FDA approval of the first HPV test for primary cervical cancer screening on April 25th, 2014, clinicians now have 3 different first line screening options, the Pap test, co-testing with Pap and HPV tests, and HPV testing as a stand-alone test. Specifically, the Roche CobasĀ® HPV Test was approved for primary screening for cervical cancer as a stand-alone test.

Clinical trials that evaluate cancer-screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Ongoing trials on the development of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7- specific Human Immunologic Assays in Non-HLA2 Type Human Being, Molecular markers in Cervical Cancer Screening, and multispectral digital colposcopy are going on. These improvements in screening strategies along with therapeutic and preventive methods contribute significantly to the control and prevention of cervical cancer.

Keywords


HPV, cancer screening guidelines, HPV test, cervical cancer

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References


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